2012 Jul-Sep; Vol 3, No 3
Can Alcohol Intake from Mouthwash be Measured in Epidemiological Studies? Development and Validation of Mouthwash Use Questionnaire with Particular Attention to Measuring Alcohol Intake from Mouthwash
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2012 (Jul-Sep);3(3):e1
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the mouthwash use questionnaire to determine the lifetime exposure to alcohol from mouthwash and verify that it was suitable for use in general population.
Material and Methods: Data were available from three consecutive studies, all collecting information on mouthwash use. In addition, supermarkets and online stores were screened for the brands of mouthwash they sold. Alcohol content of mouthwash was identified from various sources, including laboratory measurements. Alcohol-containing mouthwash use was converted to glasses of wine equivalent.
Results: Mouthwash was used by 62% of the participants, and the main benefits reported were refreshment of bad breath (75%), elimination of bacteria (68%) and reduction of plaque formation (47%). Majority mouthwashes used by the participants contained alcohol (61%). Life-time exposure from alcohol in mouthwash was relatively small for most of the study participants: 79% had rinsed for less than one year with alcohol equivalent of one glass of wine per day. There was substantial agreement in mouthwash reporting between different occasions (Kappa > 0.62).
Conclusions: The questionnaire can be used to investigate mouthwash use in the general population and to measure alcohol intake from mouthwash.
Keywords: mouthwashes; oral health; oral cancer; alcohols; epidemiology; questionnaires.
Oral and Maxillofacial Trauma and the Use of Telemedicine in the Grampian Region of Scotland: a Retrospective Study
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2012 (Jul-Sep);3(3):e2
Objectives: To evaluate the amount and nature of adult facial trauma in Aberdeen, Scotland’s third largest city, that requires referral to Aberdeen Royal Infirmary oral and maxillofacial surgery department by the Emergency Department and Grampian’s telemedicine service over a six month period.
Material and Methods: A retrospective audit using oral and maxillofacial surgery trauma clinic and theatre records to identify Emergency Department (ED) notes for those patients presenting with facial trauma. ED notes were examined to extract demographic data on each patient as well as information on the nature and outcomes of the facial trauma. This data was compared with previously published national and international statistics.
Results: 137 patients were identified with a mean age of 33.7 years with a standard deviation of 16.7. 83.2% of facial trauma victims were male and 62% of facial injuries were caused by alleged assault. Only 1 patient was referred to Aberdeen Royal Infirmary by telemedicine.
Conclusions: Aberdeen has a high number of injuries caused by interpersonal violence. Telemedicine is an underused resource in the referral and review of facial trauma at Aberdeen Royal Infirmary.
Keywords: telemedicine; maxillofacial injuries; emergency care.
Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2012 (Jul-Sep);3(3):e3
Objectives: There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. If glucose in saliva is linked to glucose in blood it can be used to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage. The present study is undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in people with diabetes mellitus.
Material and Methods: For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects were recruited. The salivary glucose was analyzed in unstimulated whole saliva samples using glucose oxidase method. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was applied to assess the correlation between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level.
Results: The significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation of salivary glucose level and fasting blood glucose level was observed in people with uncontrolled diabetes in both the sets of samples.
Conclusions: Although study suggests some potential for saliva as a marker in monitoring of diabetes mellitus, there are many aspects that need clarification before we reach to a conclusion.
Keywords: diabetes mellitus type I; diabetes mellitus type II; patient selection; salivation; blood glucose.
Clinical Outcome of Inter-Proximal Papilla between a Tooth and a Single Implant Treated with CAD/CAM Abutments: a Cross-Sectional Study
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2012 (Jul-Sep);3(3):e4
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes achieved with Computer-Assisted Design/Computer-Assisted Manufacturing implant abutments in the anterior maxilla.
Material and Methods: Nineteen patients with a mean age of 41 (range form 26 to 63) years, treated with 21 single tooth implants and 21 Computer-Assisted Design/Computer-Assisted Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) abutments in the anterior maxillary region were included in this study. The patients followed 4 criteria of inclusion: (1) had a single-tooth implant in the anterior maxilla, (2) had a CAD/CAM abutment, (3) had a contralateral natural tooth, (4) the implant was restored and in function for at least 6 months up to 2 years. Cases without contact point were excluded. Presence/absence of the interproximal papilla, inter tooth-implant distance (ITD) and distance from the base of the contact point to dental crest bone of adjacent tooth (CPB) were accessed.
Results: Forty interproximal spaces were evaluated, with an average mesial CPB of 5.65 (SD 1.65) mm and distal CPB of 4.65 (SD 1.98) mm. An average mesial ITD of 2.49 (SD 0.69) mm and an average distal ITD of 1.89 (SD 0.63) mm were achieved. Papilla was present in all the interproximal spaces accessed.
Conclusions: The restoration of dental implants using CAD/CAM abutments is a predictable treatment with improved aesthetic results. These type of abutments seem to help maintaining a regular papillary filling although the variations of the implant positioning or the restoration teeth relation.
Keywords: Computer-Assisted Design; Computer-Assisted Manufacturing; dental abutments; dental implants; outcomes assessment; dental esthetics.
Generalised Leukaemic Gingival Enlargement: a Case Report
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2012 (Jul-Sep);3(3):e5
Background: Acute myeloblastic leukaemia is a malignant bone marrow neoplasm of myeloid precursors of white blood cells. Due to its high morbidity rate, early diagnosis and appropriate medical therapy is essential.
Methods: The article highlights normal blood alterations like anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis and advanced diagnostic aids like flow cytometry, special staining as a diagnostic modality as well as for prognostic information in acute leukaemia, particularly as a tool for assigning lineage and facilitating further pathologic classification which may be helpful in influencing treatment strategies.
Results: On clinical examination the case presented with features of inflammatory gingival enlargement with presence of local deposits and calculus. Routine blood examination anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis with haemoglobin 5.6 gm% and total leukocyte count of 1,12,000 / cu mm suggestive of leukaemia. Myeloperoxidase and leukocyte nonspecific esterase (NSE) special stain were used which showed presence of myeloblasts in the peripheral smear suggestive of acute myelocytic leukaemia. Flow cytometry were done which further helped in interpretation of these cells which showed to be strongly positive for CD45, CD13, CD14, and anti HLADR and moderately positive for CD4, CD34 and Anti MPO confirming to be case of AML-M4 with 57.73% gating.
Conclusions: Fact that gingival alterations are sometimes the first manifestations of the disease implies that dental professionals must be sufficiently familiarized with the clinical manifestations of systemic diseases. The timely referral by the general dentist for a suspicious lesion provided an early diagnosis and early intervention reducing the patient morbidity.
Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; flow cytometry; gingival hyperplasia.
A Simplified Technique for Orientation of a Bone Anchored Auricular Prostheses: a Clinical Report
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2012 (Jul-Sep);3(3):e6
Background: A simple technique was presented in this clinical report for orientation of a bone anchored auricular prosthesis.
Methods: The proposed technique includes drawing the intact ear on a transparent celluloid paper or radiographic film and flipping it to the opposite side and relating it to the fixed anatomical features on the face of patient.
Results: The drawing, by this way provides a simple and easy way to duplicate and transfer the exact size and position of the intact ear to the defect side.
Conclusions: This technique provides a simple, safe, inexpensive and time saving yet, an accurate and effective surgical template that orients the craniofacial implants to the confines of the definitive auricular prosthesis. It is indicated for restoration of single missing external ear either in aplasia, injuries and total resection.
Keywords: acquired ear deformities; external ear; ear cartilage; prostheses and implants; osseointegration; quality of life.