2014 Jul-Sep; Vol 5, No 3
Titanium Surfaces with Nanostructures Influence on Osteoblasts Proliferation: a Systematic Review
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2014 (Jul-Sep);5(3):e1
Objectives: Nanothechnology found to be increasingly implemented in implantology sphere over the recent years and it shows encouraging effect in this field. The aim of present review is to compare, based on the recent evidence, the influence of various nanostructure surface modifications of titanium for implants, on osteoblasts proliferation.
Material and Methods: A literature review of English articles was conducted by using MEDLINE database restricted to 2009 - 2014 and constructed according PRISMA guidelines. Search terms included “Titanium implant”, “Titanium surface with nanostructure”, “Osteoblast”. Additional studies were identified in bibliographies. Only in vitro and/or in vivo studies on nano structured implant surfaces plus control sample, with specific evaluation method for osteoblasts proliferation and at least one Ti sample with nanostructure, were included in the review.
Results: 32 studies with 122 groups of examined samples were selected for present review. Each study conducted in vitro experiment, two studies conducted additional in vivo experiments. All studies were dispensed by type of surface modification into two major groups; “Direct ablative titanium implant surface nano-modifications” with 19 studies and ”Nanocomposite additive implant surface modifications” with 13 studies. Overall 24 studies reporting on positive effect of nanostructured surface, 2 studies found no significant advantage and 6 studies reported on negative effect compared to other structure scales.
Conclusions: From examination of selected articles we can notice marked advantage in implementation of various nanostructures onto implant surface. Yet for discovering the ultimate implant surface nanostructure, further comparable investigations of Ti surface nanostructures need to be done.
Keywords: dental implants; nanotechnology; nanostructured materials; osteoblasts; cell proliferation.
Self-Reported Facial Pain in UK Biobank Study: Prevalence and Associated Factors
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2014 (Jul-Sep);5(3):e2
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of facial pain and to examine the hypothesis that symptoms are associated with socio-demographic, dental, adverse psychological factors and pain elsewhere in the body.
Material and Methods: Cross-sectional population data were obtained from UK Biobank (www.ukbiobank.ac.uk/) study which was conducted in 2006 - 2010 and recruited over 500,000 people.
Results: The overall prevalence of facial pain (FP) was 1.9% (women 2.4%, men 1.2%) of which 48% was chronic. The highest prevalence was found in the 51 - 55 age group (2.2%) and the lowest in the 66 - 73 age group (1.4%). There was a difference in prevalence by ethnicity (0.8% and 2.7% in persons reporting themselves as Chinese and Mixed respectively). Prevalence of FP significantly associated with all measures of social class with the most deprived and on lowest income showing the highest prevalence (2.5% and 2.4% respectively). FP was more common in individuals who rated themselves as extremely unhappy, had history of depression and reported sleep problems. Smoking associated with increase in reporting FP while alcohol consumption had inverse association. FP associated with history of painful gums, toothache and all types of regional pain.
Conclusions: This is the largest ever study to provide estimates of facial pain prevalence. It demonstrates unique features (lower prevalence than previously reported) and common features (more common in women) and confirms multifactorial aetiology of facial pain. Significant association with psychological distress and a strong relationship to pain elsewhere in the body suggests that aetiology is not specific to this regional pain.
Keywords: facial pain; orofacial pain; epidemiology; risk factors.
The Influence of 1α.25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Coating on Implant Osseointegration in the Rabbit Tibia
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2014 (Jul-Sep);5(3):e3
Objectives: This study aims to evaluate bone response to an implant surface modified by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1.25-(OH)2D3] in vivo and the potential link between 1.25-(OH)2D3 surface concentration and bone response.
Material and Methods: Twenty-eight implants were divided into 4 groups (1 uncoated control, 3 groups coated with 1.25-(OH)2D3 in concentrations of 10-8, 10-7 and 10-6 M respectively), placed in the rabbit tibia for 6 weeks. Topographical analyses were carried out on coated and uncoated discs using interferometer and atomic-force-microscope (AFM). Twenty-eight implants were histologically observed (bone-to-implant-contact [BIC] and new-bone-area [NBA]).
Results: The results showed that the 1.25-(OH)2D3 coated implants presented a tendency to osseointegrate better than the non-coated surfaces, the differences were not significant (P > 0.05).
Conclusions: The effect of 1.25-(OH)2D3 coating to implants suggested possible dose dependent effects, however no statistical differences could be found. It is thought that the base substrate topography (turned) could not sustain sufficient amount of 1.25-(OH)2D3 enough to present significant biologic responses. Thus, development a base substrate that can sustain 1.25-(OH)2D3 for a long period is necessary in future studies.
Keywords: dental implants; vitamin D; drug dose response relationship; histological techniques; bone formation.
Stability of the Anterior Maxillary Segment and Teeth after Segmental Le Fort I Osteotomy and Postoperative Skeletal Elastic Fixation With or Without Occlusal Splint
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2014 (Jul-Sep);5(3):e4
Objectives: To assess the short term dental and skeletal stability of the anterior maxillary segment after segmental Le Fort I osteotomy with postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint.
Material and Methods: 29 consecutive patients underwent segmental Le Fort I osteotomy and elastic skeletal fixation was applied. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether a fixed occlusal splint was used for six weeks (group A) or dismounted perioperatively (group B). Changes in landmarks and reference planes between the two timepoints were estimated on lateral cephalometric radiographs.
Results: Group A: The upper incisor had a mean intrusion of -0.56 mm (SD 0.77; range -2.04 to 1.08 mm) and a mean posterior movement of -0.93 mm (SD 1.03; range -2.52 to 0.96 mm). The mean change in the axial inclination of the upper incisor was -0.33° (SD 2.56; range -6° to 4°) (95% CI: -1.75 to 1.08°). Group B: The upper incisor had a mean intrusion of -0.13 mm (SD 1.36; range -1.92 to 3.6 mm) and a mean anterior movement of 0.11 mm (SD 1.78; range -2.88 to 3.84 mm). The mean change in the axial inclination of the upper incisor was -0.07° (SD 3.05; range -5° to 5°) (95% CI: -1.83 to 1.69°). There was no statistically significant difference in stability between the two groups at the P value 0.05.
Conclusions: The skeletal anterior fixation with postoperative elastics for eight weeks may not compromise the early postoperative dental and skeletal stability of the anterior segment in segmental Le Fort I osteotomy.
Keywords: maxillofacial orthognatic surgery; LeFort osteotomy; open bite; skeletal fixation.
Accidental Displacement of Third Molar into the Sublingual Space: a Case Report
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2014 (Jul-Sep);5(3):e5
Background: Successful extraction of third molars depends on preoperative diagnosis and planning. Gold standard preoperative examinations are performed through computed tomography, decreasing risks and avoiding potential accidents. The present report highlights the value of preoperative examinations in face of accidentally displaced third molars.
Methods: An 18-years-old female patient underwent a third mandibular molar extraction with a general dentist. Accidentally, the mandibular left third molar was displaced into the sublingual space, making necessary a second surgical step. The surgery was interrupted and the patient was referred to an expert in maxillofacial surgery.
Results: After 21 days awaiting an asymptomatic health status, the second surgical step was successfully performed using multislice computed tomography as preoperative imaging guide.
Conclusions: The present case report highlights the clinical usefulness of imaging planning and informed consents in face of legal and ethic potential complaints.
Keywords: third molar; multislice computed tomography; oral surgery; tooth extraction.