2019 Apr-Jun; Vol 10, No 2
The Use of Tooth Derived Bone Graft Materials in Sinus Augmentation Procedures: a Systematic Review
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2019;10(2):e1
Objectives: The goal of this systematic review was to assess the current literature about sinus augmentation procedure using different types of tooth derived bone graft materials, thorough analysing the outcomes of sinus grafting with tooth grafts compared to sinus grafting with xenografts, allografts and alloplasts by radiography and histomorphometry.
Material and Methods: An electronic search in the MEDLINE (NCBI PubMed and PubMed Central) database was conducted to identify articles concerning application of tooth bone grafts in sinus augmentation. The search was restricted to English language articles published in the last 10 years (December 2009 to March 2019).
Results: In total, 21 articles were found, out of which 7 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final synthesis. According to the type of diagnostic tool, data about graft material outcome in sinus was extracted, and included the residual alveolar height, augmented graft height, resorption height as seen in panoramic radiography and histomorphometric analysis of new bone formation and residual graft material.
Conclusions: Within the limitations of our review, we suggest that tooth derived graft materials are as successful as xenografts, allografts and alloplasts in sinus augmentation procedures according to the radiographic and histomorphometric showings. Additional wider research should be conducted in order to determine whether tooth derived graft materials are superior to the currently used materials.
Keywords: bone formation; bone transplantation; maxillary sinus; radiography; tooth.
Localization of the Mandibular Canal in a Turkish Population: a Retrospective Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Study
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2019;10(2):e2
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the location of the mandibular canal at the mental foramen region that is essential in order to prevent injuries to the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle during mandibular surgical procedures.
Material and Methods: The position of the mandibular canal was analysed using cone-beam computed tomography images from 300 Turkish patients, who were referred to Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Izmir Katip Celebi University for various complaints. The distances of the mandibular canal to the outer superior (D1), inferior (D2), buccal (D3), and lingual (D4) cortical margins were measured at 2 mm distal to the mental foramen.
Results: There were 148 (49.3%) males and 152 (50.7%) females with ages ranging from 15 to 74 years (39.15 [SD 17.8]). D1 was significantly greater than D2 and D3 was significantly greater than D4 on both left and right sides. While the mean D1, D2, and D4 in males were significantly greater than in females on both left and right sides. There was no significant difference between D3 in males and females on both left and right sides.
Conclusions: The results showed that the mandibular canal was vertically located nearer to the inferior cortical border and horizontally nearer to the lingual cortical border of the mandible at the mental foramen region. Knowledge of the distances of mandibular canal to the outer cortical margins at this region of the mandible will be helpful for surgical procedures.
Keywords: cone-beam computed tomography; inferior alveolar nerve; mandible.
Mouth Cancer Awareness in General Population: Results from Grampian Region of Scotland, United Kingdom
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2019;10(2):e3
Objectives: The purpose of this project was to determine the level of mouth cancer awareness and to investigate the associated factors in a United Kingdom (UK) general population sample.
Material and Methods: Adult Dental Health Survey (2010) was conducted in a sample of 3,353 adult residents in the Grampian region of the UK (adjusted participation rate 58%). Participants completed a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health, health behaviour, quality of life and cancer awareness.
Results: Overall, 81% of participants were aware of mouth cancer. This was associated with younger age, higher levels of education and better general health. Current smokers and alcohol drinkers were more aware of mouth cancer. When asked about risk factors for mouth cancer, the following were identified by the respondents: smoking (84%), poor oral hygiene (60%), drinking alcohol heavily (59%), poor diet (37%), stress (15%), being overweight (6%), drinking hot liquids (5%), eating spicy food (3%), using mouthwash (2%) and kissing someone (1%). Smokers were more likely to identify smoking as a risk factor for mouth cancer. Similarly, those who consumed alcohol almost daily were more likely to identify heavy alcohol drinking as a risk factor.
Conclusions: Awareness of mouth cancer is high in respondents from the general population, and participants were able to identify the most important risk factors. Knowledge of tobacco and alcohol as risk factors was highest amongst those exposed to them. The study proposed that the prevention strategies should focus not only on increasing knowledge, but also on changing health behaviour.
Keywords: alcohol drinking; awareness; mouth cancer; risk factors; tobacco.
Analysis of the Buccal Bone Plate, Root Inclination and Alveolar Bone Dimensions in the Jawbone. A Descriptive Study Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2019;10(2):e4
Objectives: This study aims to determine if there are enough buccal alveolar bone thickness to perform an immediate dental implant placement in anterior and posterior maxillary teeth.
Material and Methods: A total of 1463 teeth were examined, from 202 cone-beam computed tomography scans with voxel sizes of 0.15 mm. On each tooth, the following measures were determined: the alveolar bone thickness in two locations; the vertical distance between the buccal alveolar crest and cementoenamel junction; the angle between the tooth’s long axis and the alveolar bone axial inclination in the sagittal plane.
Results: In the most coronal location of maxillary teeth, the thickness of alveolar bone was lower than 0.6 (SD 0.6) mm in 50% of the teeth, and in the middle of the root the bone thickness was, on average, 0.96 (SD 0.6) mm. For the same maxillary teeth, the vertical distance between the buccal alveolar crest and cementoenamel junction and the angulation measured were, on average, 3.6 (SD 1.2) mm and 12.1º (SD 1.4º), respectively.
Conclusions: The present study revealed that in most cases the thickness of buccal alveolar bone was less than 1 mm. Consequently, in such cases, immediate dental implant placement operation is not recommended, or should be combined with bone regeneration techniques.
Keywords: alveolar process; cone-beam computed tomography; dental implants; tooth socket.
Giant Cell Granulomas of Jaws: a Clinicopathologic Study
J Oral Maxillofac Res 2019;10(2):e5
Objectives: The purpose of present study was to investigate and correlate the histological findings in central giant cell granuloma and peripheral giant cell granuloma of jaws with clinical and radiographic interpretations of the lesion.
Material and Methods: In present study, data from 14 cases of central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) and 9 cases of peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) were analysed, focusing on demographic, clinical and radiographic features. For each patient, microscopic slides were assessed in terms of histologic features of giant cells i.e. number of giant cells, mean number of nuclei/giant cell, pattern of distribution, size and relative size index of giant cells, percentage fractional surface area (FSA) occupied by giant cells and stromal characteristics. Data collected was subjected to statistical analysis. Fisher-exact test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, one-way ANOVA test and Student’s t-test were used for analysis.
Results: No significant difference was found between PGCG and CGCG in relation to all the traits that were evaluated. It was observed that mean number of giant cells and mean FSA was more in aggressive CGCG as compared to non-aggressive CGCG.
Conclusions: Further studies on large sample size are required to confirm the relationship between histomorphometric features of giant cells and behaviour of giant cell granulomas of jaws.
Keywords: behavior; granuloma; giant cells; jaw; jaw diseases.